Research on logistics distribution network plannin

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Research on logistics distribution network planning based on supply chain

particularity of supply chain oriented logistics distribution network

logistics distribution network is a collection of interrelated organizations and facilities in the distribution process. Its ultimate goal is to satisfy the final customers, so as to realize the value of the whole supply chain and enhance the ability of the supply chain. However, because the elements in the distribution network belong to different entities, which have their own profit and risk requirements, they will take corresponding measures to maximize their profits from their own interests

the elements in the system interact and influence each other. The seemingly reasonable decision made by one party may have a great impact on the whole system, which is almost unimaginable. Therefore, when planning the distribution network, we should take the coordination and integration mechanism of the supply chain as the guiding ideology, so as to plan the different entities in the supply chain as a whole. In a way, it is also a false adjustment that different entities in the supply chain belong to the same owner. Only in this way can the design of distribution network be comprehensively optimized from the perspective of the whole system

decision factors of distribution network planning

in order to plan the distribution grid well, we have to consider its decision factors. This paper holds that the decision-making elements related to distribution network design can be summarized into three aspects

⑴ location decision of distribution center. Specifically, it includes the quantity, address, source configuration and user zoning of distribution centers, as well as the selection of goods handling equipment

⑵ freight decision of distribution network. Specifically, it includes freight mode and transportation type, carrier selection and one-time distribution, designated vehicle, distribution route or schedule design, manpower allocation, etc

⑶ inventory decision of distribution network. Specifically, it includes the setting of the total inventory level and inventory location of the distribution network, the inventory of each inventory point, but the parameters used, the control of improper goods level and safety stock, as well as the decision-making basis of inventory control at each inventory point

problems to be considered in the structural design of logistics network

the structural problem of manufacturing logistics network is mainly to determine the structure of products from the supply point to the demand point, including what kind of facilities need to be used, the number of facilities, the location of facilities, how to allocate facilities, the transportation mode used between facilities, and how to provide services

the design of logistics network structure needs to determine the number and location of various facilities required for carrying logistics work. It must also determine how each facility carries out inventory operation, how much inventory it reserves, and where it is arranged to deliver customers' orders. The network of logistics facilities forms a structure for logistics operations. Therefore, this network integrates information and transportation capacity, as well as specific work related to order processing, inventory maintenance and material handling

the design of enterprise logistics network should also consider the space and time of design. Spatial or geographical design refers to determining the geographical location of various facilities (such as factories, warehouses, retail outlets, etc.). When determining the location of the quantity of various facilities, it is necessary to find a balance between customer service requirements and costs expressed in geographical location (production/procurement cost, inventory holding cost, facility cost and transportation cost). When discussing the relationship between supply and demand, the original logistics network designers often ignore the geographical location of logistics facilities and the importance of the whole network design. They generally assume that the difference between the location and transportation cost of logistics facilities does not exist or is equal among competitors

however, with the development of modern logistics, the number, scale and geographical relationship of facilities directly used in current logistics operations affect the ability and cost of providing services to customers to a certain extent. The fact that there are a lot of geographical differences between markets is easy to explain, so the design of a network must consider geographical changes

therefore, enterprises that conduct marketing nationwide must establish their logistics capacity in serving these most basic markets; Similar geographical differences exist in the location of materials and parts sources. When a manufacturer is involved in global logistics, the problems related to network design will become more complex

the structure of logistics network is generally around the warehouse. The number of warehouses in enterprises is influenced by many factors and variables, and often depends on the characteristics of enterprise products, sales methods and customer demand characteristics. The geographical location of the warehouse has an important impact on the cost, distribution efficiency, service quality, safety stock, production lead time, etc. Therefore, it must be carefully calculated and the number of warehouses and the location distribution of each warehouse must be considered

the scale of the warehouse depends on the demand forecast and the inventory strategy of the enterprise, and also has a strong connection with the service area of the warehouse. The sales volume of various products of enterprises in different regions is different, which determines that the types of products stored in each warehouse are different. Therefore, we should comprehensively consider the total scale of the warehouse and the differences in the internal space allocation of different products

the time problem of logistics network design mainly refers to the problem of product availability to meet customer service objectives, that is, to maintain a certain level of product availability by shortening the response time of production/purchase orders or maintaining inventory close to customers. The primary factor considered by manufacturing enterprises in the time of logistics network design is the time when customers obtain products, and the time-based logistics network decision will also affect the location and quantity of logistics facilities

content of logistics distribution network planning under the supply chain

distribution network planning mainly uses mathematical methods to plan the location of distribution center, the optimization of distribution lines and the allocation of distribution vehicles, so as to reduce the distribution cost of goods in the distribution process as much as possible on the premise of ensuring the customer service level

the main work of distribution network planning includes:

⑴ distribution network structure

distribution network structure refers to the control strategy and organization mode of moving (Transportation) and stationary (transit and centralized transportation, replacement, sorting, inventory, packaging, etc.) during the spatial transfer of goods from production area to consumption area. The distribution structure determines that different levels of nodes undertake different tasks in the whole distribution network. With different functions, there must be some differences in facilities and conditions

reflected in the requirements for site selection: the higher the level of nodes, the more transfer tasks they undertake and the farther the transportation distance they undertake; The larger the collection, distribution and distribution units, the connection between different levels is often completed through the conversion of different transportation modes. Therefore, the high-level nodes are closer to the transportation hub in site selection; On the contrary, the lowest level node mainly undertakes the periodic inventory. The transportation equipment in and out of the warehouse is basically trucks, which has a wide range of adaptability. The fixed costs such as land price are mainly considered when selecting the site. In fact, nodes usually play the role of connecting different transportation modes

for the structure of distribution network, because of the pressure of competition and the expectation of reducing costs, enterprises generally try to make the valve needle advance and retreat 1mm, and flatten its channel, that is to say, reduce the level in the distribution network. Therefore, there are mainly two types of distribution networks used at present. One is a multi-level and multi-stage network structure

at present, the two-stage structure is mostly used, that is, factory → distributor → retailer (applicable to more traditional industries, such as electrical appliances, parts, etc.) or factory → merchant distribution center → retailer (more common in retail industry, such as Wal Mart, etc.). The other is a network structure with the rise of e-commerce, such as direct selling. It is that manufacturers face customers directly and fulfill customers' orders directly through third-party logistics companies, that is, factory → customer (mostly seen in industries with high-value and low volume products)

⑵ location of distribution facilities

the location of distribution facilities considers the given conditions of each demand point in a designated or uncertain distribution area, and selects the number and optimal location of distribution facilities to minimize the operation cost and transportation cost of distribution facilities. There are many influencing factors involved in location decision, among which transportation cost and efficiency are important factors to be considered in the location decision of distribution facilities. If there is little difference in non cost factors such as geographical environment and market conditions of each candidate point in the location decision of distribution facilities, the transportation cost and operation cost can be mainly considered

to make facility decision, the corresponding location model can be established to determine the location of one or more facilities. In the logistics system, the distribution station and transportation line together form the logistics network. The distribution station is on the "node" of the network, and the transportation line is the "line" connecting each "node". In this sense, the node determines the line

specifically, in an economic region with several resource points and several demand points, material resources can supply each demand only through the centralized transfer and distribution of a distribution station. Therefore, according to the actual needs of supply and demand and in combination with the principles of economic benefits, how many distribution points are set up in the established region and where are the geographical locations of each distribution point, How large each distribution point should be (including throughput capacity and storage capacity) and how the logistics relationship between these sites should be is very important

these problems should be reasonably solved by using the facility location model. However, the existing location models generally only consider the operation cost, fixed investment cost and transportation cost, but do not consider the customer's choice behavior. In fact, after the address of a certain distribution point is determined, how many customer demands are allocated here is still a problem worthy of study

the facility location model can also include economic or other constraints. The purpose of using the model can also be to maximize the distance between service facilities or the total number of people they serve. At the same time, it can also determine the best location of new facilities considering the impact of other existing facilities

⑶ optimization of distribution routes

distribution and transportation usually face a large number of users. It is suitable for the transportation of small quantities and many kinds of goods. The route is short but complicated. The number of round trips of the same route is more, and the route is relatively fixed. Even if the cost of one-time transportation of one route is not much, the total cost can be greatly reduced due to the number of times. It is precisely because of the unique characteristics of distribution and transportation that the reasonable planning of distribution route has a much greater impact on the distribution cost than the general transportation. Therefore, on the basis of comprehensive planning, we must formulate efficient transportation route, select reasonable transportation mode and transportation means, and usually take automobile as the main transportation means

this is also the key link of the whole distribution network optimization. To reasonably determine the distribution route is to use the least power, take the shortest mileage, spend the least cost, go through the least links and transport the goods to the users at the fastest speed

there are many factors involved in determining the distribution route, including transportation distance, transportation links, transportation means, transportation time, transportation cost, etc. In essence, the problem of route selection in reasonable distribution is often multi-objective, that is, a route from the product supply source is affected by more than one objective. The goal can be the least transportation cost, the least transportation risk, the shortest operation time or the best demand satisfaction

in general, among the objectives of multi-objective distribution route selectionMetallographic polishing machine
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